The arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The relatively small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, and is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes. The southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands.
The peso is the currency of Chile. The current peso has circulated since 1975, with a previous version circulating between 1817 and 1960. Its symbol is defined as a letter S with either one or two vertical bars superimposed prefixing the amount,$ or ; the single-bar symbol, available in most modern text systems, is almost always used. Both of these symbols are used by many currencies, most notably the US dollar, and may be ambiguous without clarification such as CLP$ or US$. The ISO 4217 code for the present peso is CLP. It is officially subdivided into 100 centavos, although there are no current centavo-denominated coins. The exchange rate was around CLP$600 to 1 U.S. dollar at the end of 2014; by August 2015 it fell to 694 per 1 US dollar.
First peso, 1817–1960
The first Chilean peso was introduced in 1817, at a value of 8 Spanish colonial reales. Until 1851, the peso was subdivided into 8 reales, with the escudo worth 2 pesos. In 1835, copper coins denominated in centavos were introduced but it was not until 1851 that the real and escudo denominations ceased to be issued and further issues in centavos and décimos (worth 10 centavos) commenced. Also in 1851, the peso was set equal 5 French francs on the sild, 22.5grams pure silver. However, gold coins were issued to a different standard to that of France, with 1 peso = 1.37grams gold (5 francs equalled 1.45grams gold). In 1885, a gold standard was adopted, pegging the peso to the British pound at a rate of 13⅓ pesos = 1 pound (1 peso = 1 shilling 6 pence). This was reduced in 1926 to 40 pesos = 1 pound (1 peso = 6 pence). From 1925, coins and banknotes were issued denominated in cóndores, worth 10 pesos. The gold standard was suspended in 1932 and the peso's value fell further. The escudo replaced the peso on 1 January 1960 at a rate 1 escudo = 1000 pesos.
The Dingling (Chinese:丁零) are an ancient people mentioned in Chinese historiography in the context of the 1st century BCE.
They are assumed to have been an early Turkic-speaking people,
whose original constituents mainly assimilated into the Xiongnu and Xianbei groups.
They originally lived on the bank of the Lena River in the area west of Lake Baikal, gradually moving southward to Mongolia and northern China. They were subsequently part of the Xiongnu Empire, and thus presumably related to the invaders known as Huns in the west.
Around the 3rd century they were assimilated into the Tiele, also named Gaoche (高車) or Chile (敕勒), who gradually expanded westward into Central Asia, expelled from Mongolia by the Rouran and establishing a state Turpan in the 5th century.
The Tiele were a collection of early Turkic tribes, largely descended from the Chile.
Origin and migration
The Dingling were a warlike group of hunters, fishers, and gatherers of the southern Siberian mountain taiga region from Lake Baikal to northern Mongolia. Chinese records do not mention the physical appearance of the Dingling, suggesting general homogeneity with people of the Asiatic region, and their name appears rarely.
With three wins from three, England top Pool D ahead of their trip to Lille this weekend having beaten Argentina, Japan and Chile... With three wins from three, England top Pool D ahead of their trip to Lille this weekend having beaten Argentina, Japan and Chile.
Marcus Smith will be a marked man if he lines up at full-back again against Samoa next week with the Pacific islanders wary of the threat posed by England’s attacking livewire ...Rugby World Cup 2023. what to look out for this weekend. Read more. “He played amazingly at full-back [against Chile],” said Paia’aua. “He had a bit of freedom with the ball ... .
There has still been room for some niggle towards Los Condores, with Argentina fans mocking Chile’s players for presenting England with a gift - a traditional flute - and sharing beers in the dressing room after the game in Lille last weekend ... lies ahead in Nantes this weekend.
With Argentina expected to claim five points against Chile over the weekend, the Brave Blossoms will then face Los Pumas in a winner-takes-all showdown ...Samoa – whose final pool match with England is in Lille next weekend – made the most of their man advantage, Lam touching down following a driving maul to go into the break trailing 17-8 ... .
The morning after the night before always comes around a lot sooner for a rugby coach when the Rugby World Cup game he is being questioned about kicked off at 9 p.m ... 28, 2023. (Kyodo) ==Kyodo ... 28, 2023. (Kyodo) ==Kyodo ... 8 over Argentina, who are expected to beat Chile at the weekend, will see them into the last eight for the second straight World Cup.
The result confirmed England's place in the quarter-finals ... Fourth-placed Argentina are expected to add to their four points when they meet Chile this weekend before a potential pool decider against Japan in the last round of group games. -RNZ / Reuters ....
Samoa head into Thursday's Rugby World Cup game with Japan knowing it will need a team effort to beat the Brave Blossoms in what many are calling a do-or-die game ... "The forwards need to be switched on ... (Kyodo) ... Samoa and Japan have five points each, while Argentina, Japan's final opponent, have four ahead of their fixture this weekend against Chile.
Again, there are obvious caveats to England’s efforts against Chile, a team that have conceded over 40 points to both Scotland A and Leinster since the summer of 2022. But this weekend represented a step in the right direction for Steve Borthwick’s men and there were undeniably positive aspects to their performance.
... against Chile and Japan on the line ... Samoa will focus on Japan, who they play next weekend. One of the key areas they will have to work on is keeping the ball in hand, which Vaovasamanaia said is something they have been working on, even after their win over Chile two weekends ago.